Various needs corresponding to an economic question

Below are some examples

Dispute Economic Questions          
Patent infringement Commercial success (validity)Reasonable royalties lost profits FRAND terms Public interest analysis for injunctive reliefPunitive damages (willful infringement)
Antitrust Relevant markets market power Monopolization and vertical restraintsMonopsonyPrice fixing and horizontal agreementsBundling Loyalty rebatesExclusionary practices Raising rivals’ costRefusals to dealEfficienciesConsumer-welfare effects
Securities Earnings manipulation and inadequate disclosureForeign exchange transactions MaterialitySecurity price formationLoss causation
Labor and Employment Discrimination in compensation and compensation structuresUncompensated labor and earnings loss Post-employment covenants Wage and hour penaltiesDisparate impact Trade secret misappropriation
Merger control and review Relevant marketsEfficienciesUnilateral and coordinated effects Consumer-welfare impact Entry conditions Tunney Act review Modification of consent decrees
Contract and tort disputes Royalties, pricing Expectation damages Restitution damages Consequential damages Unfair competitionDefamation and disparagement
Copyright infringement Lost profitsPrice erosionProfit disgorgement Reasonable royaltiesCorrective advertising
Trademark infringement Diminished trademark value Increased costsDelayed profits Defendants’ profits Unjust enrichmentDiminished goodwill
Class actions Class certification Attorneys’ fees
Government takings Just compensation
Regulated industries Rate designRatemaking Cost recoveryRegulatory takings

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